News & Alerts
New Guidelines for Treating Hypertensive Patients
In the United States, 78 million (1 out of 3) adults have high blood pressure (BP). Early detection and appropriate treatment of hypertension is important to reduce the risks of other progressive diseases such as stoke, renal failure, myocardial infarction, and death. In 2003, the Seventh Joint National Committee (JNC 7) issued a report with guidelines including changes in the categorization and definition of hypertension with recommended lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic strategies for treatment. These hypertension definitions based off of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from JNC7 were simplified to 4 categories as follows:
· Normal blood pressure: SBP <120 mmHg and DBP <80mmHg
· Prehypertension: SBP 120-139 mmHg or DBP 80-89 mmHg
· Stage I hypertension: SBP 140-159 mmHg or DBP 90-99 mmHg
· Stage II hypertension: SBP ≥160 mmHg or DBP ≥100 mmHg
Last month, the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) published a report in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) on evidence-based guidelines for the management of high BP in adults. During the literature review process, these recommendations were guided by three BP management questions:
· In adults with hypertension, does initiating antihypertensive pharmacologic therapy at specific BP thresholds improve health outcomes?
· In adults with hypertension, does treatment with antihypertensive pharmacologic therapy to a specified BP goal lead to improvements in health outcomes?
· In adults with hypertension, do various antihypertensive drugs or drug classes differ in comparative benefits and harms on specific outcomes?
JNC 8 issued nine recommendations concerning thresholds and goals for BP treatment and selection of antihypertensive medications and a summary for starting and adding antihypertensive drugs. These recommendations were assigned a score for both the strength of the recommendation and an evidence quality rating of each recommendation. The nine recommendations can be summarized into the following points:
· Patients 60 years or over, start treatment at SBP ≥ 150 mmHg or DPB ≥90 mmHg and work towards a goal lower than that threshold.
· In patients <60 yearswithout major comorbidities and patients >18 years with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes, treatment initiation and goals should be 140/90 mmHg.
· In nonblack patients (including diabetics), initial treatment should includethiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB), angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor), or angiotensinogen receptor blocker (ARB).
· In general black patient population (including diabetes), initial treatment should include thiazide-type diuretic or CCB.
· In patients >18 years with CKD, initial or add-on therapy should be an ACE inhibitor or ARB, regardless of race or diabetes status to improve kidney outcomes.
· HTN treatment is to attain and maintain goal BP. If goal BP not reached within a month of treatment, increase dose or add second drug and use up to 3 drugs from above recommendations. Do not use an ACEI and an ARB together in same patient. If target BP cannot be reached, referral to specialist maybe indicated.
Along with these guidelines, lifestyle modifications such as weight control through physical activity and a healthy diet should not be underestimated. JNC 8 included a convenient HTN guideline Management Algorithm in the article to be utilized by clinicians. For full free access to the JNC8 article on HTN management guidelines please visit jamanetwork.com
Submitted by Jessica Taylor, PA-S
Are You Updated?
Have you moved recently? Have you changed practice locations? Have you gotten a new job? If so, did you update you NPI number with Medicare? Every time a PA gets a new place of employment or changes jobs you need to update your information with Medicare (updating your state license information doesn't update your information with Medicare). Go to https://nppes.cms.hhs.gov or call 800-465-3203 for help updating your information.
The Use of Fluoride to Control Dental Caries
The Use of Fluoride to Control Dental Caries in the Pediatric Population
The use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the U.S. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. Both healthcare professionals and the public need guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride.
According to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 25% of our nation’s children have 80% of the cavities and this is largely due to the consumption of bottled water versus tap water in certain patient populations. Water fluoridation is still the number one most cost effective way to prevent tooth decay. This is because fluoride decreases tooth decay by as much as 70%. In cases of early cavities, fluoride can actually reverse the decay. Fluoride encourages mineralization and strengthening of weakened areas of tooth enamel.
Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the CDC recommends that all persons drink water with optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures may be needed. Measured use of fluoride is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development (under the age of 7).
According to the CDC, the goal in the use of fluoride should be to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently to reduce the likelihood of enamel fluorosis (which is a staining of the teeth).
“Smiles For Life” is a national oral health curriculum that aims to build the capacity of primary care providers to carry out oral health throughout the lifespan. Because fluoride not only helps prevent tooth decay, 45 state Medicaid programs now reimburse PCPs for applying fluoride varnish to young children’s teeth as a way to cure beginning cavies and buy time until children can be seen by a dentist who accepts Medicaid patients.
It is also well known that babies can catch cavities from their caregivers and this should be addressed at all prenatal and at all well child visits. In 71% of cases of dental caries, their mother is the source. The better mom’s oral health, the less chance baby will have problems. Cavity causing bacteria, Streptococcus Mutans, can be transmitted before teeth erupt. It is important to tell parents to avoid putting their baby’s pacifiers in their own mouths, and to avoid sharing bottles or pacifiers with other children.
Thirty percent of communities in the U.S. do not have fluoride in the public water supply so it is important to address this with your patients as well. Any city utilities department can give you the testing information every few months which is measured in parts per million. From that, one can determine how much supplemental oral fluoride is needed for children under the age of 7.
According to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Academy of Pediatrics, these guidelines should be used with pediatric patients:
$11. Wean infant from bottle at 1 year of age.
$12. All children should have their first dental examination by 1 year of age.
$13. Never dip pacifier into anything sweet or clean pacifier with parent’s saliva or share with other children.
$14. Do not allow children to fall asleep drinking a bottle.
$15. Never put anything but water in a baby’s bottle if the baby needs to fall asleep with a bottle.
$16. Brush gums and teeth twice daily.
$17. Stop pacifier usage before the age of 3.
$18. Use supplemental fluoride if needed until the age of 6.
$19. Although children should be encouraged to learn to brush, parents should brush their children’s teeth until they are about 6 years of age or can write cursive. This is due largely to the inability for young children to have the coordination to brush effectively.
The American Dental Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry all that parents to schedule their children’s first dental appointment by their first birthday.
Adoption of the recommendations from the CDC and dental academies can further reduce dental caries in the U.S. and save public and private resources. Brush Up on further recommendations for your practice at www.smilesforlifeoralhealth.org.
Submitted by Dara Schroeder, PA-C
PA Hospice and Other Provisions Included in SGR Reform Proposals
Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)
Concussion in Sports
The United States Bone and Joint Initiative (USBJI) works to advance the understanding and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions – bone and joint disorders – through research, prevention and education. It is the U.S. National Action Network of the worldwide Bone and Joint Decade, a multi-disciplinary initiative focused on improving bone and joint health, and quality of life for those afflicted with related disorders.
USBJI organizations are engaged in developing new research and education programs that will generate significant advances in the knowledge, diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, and increase the number of resources available to healthcare professionals and the public at large.
The goals of the Initiative are to:
• Raise awareness and educate the world on the increasing societal impact of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders.
• Empower patients to participate in decisions about their care and treatment.
• Increase global funding for prevention activities and treatment research.
• Continually seek and promote cost-effective prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders.
The USBJI recognizes the unique needs of children as they grow and develop. The Initiative’s Pediatric Specialty Group focuses on identifying primary areas of concern with regard to the musculoskeletal health of children. The Pediatric Specialty Group develops programs and activities to increase awareness, provide education, and promote healthy living as a means of reducing the burden of disease. Priorities include healthy lifestyles; reducing infectious disease of the musculoskeletal system; trauma prevention; improving access to high quality, ongoing care for children with limb deficiencies; optimizing bone, joint and muscle function in children with chronic neuromuscular and musculoskeletal disorders; and successful transition from pediatric to adult care for childhood onset musculoskeletal disorders.
Specific subsets within these priorities are selected to receive universal attention and focus on World Pediatric Bone and Joint (PB&J) Day, annually observed on Oct. 19. The Pediatric Specialty Group instituted the first PB&J Day in 2012. This day occurs during Bone and Joint National Action Week, Oct. 12 – 20, a time of global awareness and education.
Injuries to the musculoskeletal system in children and adolescents, especially those involving trauma to the shoulder or neck often produce head injury in the form of a concussion along with the musculoskeletal trauma. Recognition of the co-morbid neurologic injury has critical
implications for musculoskeletal as well as overall recovery. The severity of neurologic symptoms as well as the sequelae of repeated trauma have far reaching implications for both the short term and long term recovery process. This can include exercise intolerance during the recovery process, impairment of activities of daily living, and impairment of musculoskeletal function as well. The following is a discussion of the common traumatic injury known as concussion; it is the hope that increased awareness of this condition as it relates to musculoskeletal trauma will only serve to aid the recovery of injured children and adolescents.
Description of Issue:
Concussion, a form of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a common consequence of trauma to the head in contact sports. As many as 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur in the United States each year. While the majority of concussions are self-limited injuries, catastrophic results can occur and the long-term effects of multiple concussions are unknown. A history of prior concussion may increase the risk for recurrent concussions.1,2
The effect of concussion on developing brains is of particular concern. Children with concussion, particularly multiple concussions, are at high risk for developing headaches and suffering from impaired memory, cognitive function, attention, or other behavioral changes.1 Concussions occur in all sports with the highest incidence in football, hockey, rugby, soccer, and basketball.2
Concussion is defined as a traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function and involves a complex pathophysiologic process. Concussion is a subset of mild TBI that is generally self-limited and at the less severe end of the brain injury spectrum.2
Risk Factors for Sports-Related Concussion:
• A history of concussion is associated with a higher risk of sustaining another concussion.2
• A greater number, severity, and duration of symptoms after concussion are predictors of a prolonged recovery.2
• In sports with similar playing rules, the reported incidence of concussion is higher in females than males.2
• Certain sports, positions, and individual playing styles have a greater risk of concussion.2
• Youth athletes may have a more prolonged recovery and are more susceptible to a concussion accompanied by a catastrophic injury.2
• Preinjury mood disorders, learning disorders, attention deficit disorders (ADD/ADHD), and migraine headaches complicate diagnosis and management of concussion.2
‘Sideline’ Evaluation and Management:
• Signs and symptoms of suspected concussion include: headache, dizziness, confusion, feeling like "in a fog", difficulty concentrating, difficulty remembering, "don’t feel right", balance
problems, amnesia, feeling slowed down, "pressure in head", sensitivity to light or noise, fatigue or low energy, drowsiness, more emotional, nervous or anxious, irritability, sadness, blurred vision, neck pain, nausea or vomiting, seizure or convulsion, or loss of consciousness.3
• Any athlete suspected of having a concussion should be removed from play and assessed by a licensed healthcare provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussion.1,2,3
• Recognition and initial assessment of concussion should be guided by a symptom checklist, cognitive evaluation (including orientation, past and immediate memory, new learning, and concentration), balance tests, and further neurologic physical examination.2
Diagnosis of Concussion:
• Concussion remains a clinical diagnosis ideally made by a healthcare provider familiar with the athlete and knowledgeable in the recognition and evaluation of concussion.2
• Graded symptom checklists provide an objective tool for assessing a variety of symptoms related to concussions, while also tracking the severity of those symptoms over serial evaluations.2
• When premature cognitive or physical activity occurs before full recovery the brain may be vulnerable to prolonged dysfunction.2
• Students will require cognitive rest and may require academic accommodations such as reduced workload and extended time for tests while recovering from concussion.2
• Concussion symptoms should be resolved before returning to exercise.2
• A return-to-play progression involves a gradual, stepwise, increase in physical demands, sports-specific activities, and the risk for contact.2
• If symptoms occur with activity, the progression should be halted and restarted at the preceding symptom-free step.2
• Return to practice/ play after concussion should occur only with medical clearance from a licensed healthcare provider trained in the evaluation and management of concussion.1,2,3
• Greater efforts are needed to educate involved parties including athletes, parents, coaches, officials, school administrators, and healthcare providers to improve concussion recognition, management, and prevention.2 This education should include risk factors for concussion such as prior history of concussion, with the number, severity, and duration of symptoms noted as they known factors in concussion recovery.
• Primary prevention of some injuries may be possible with modification and enforcement of the rules and fair play.2
• Helmets, both hard (football, lacrosse, and hockey), and soft (soccer, rugby), are best suited to prevent impact injuries (fracture, bleeding, laceration, etc) but have not been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of concussions.2
1. American Academy of Neurology. Position Statement: Sports Concussion. http://www.aan.com/uploadedFiles/Website_Library_Assets/Documents/6.Public_Policy/1.Stay_Informed/2.Position_Statements/3.PDFs_of_all_Position_Statements/sports.pdf. Updated March 2013, Accessed June 30, 2013
2. Harmon K, et.al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement: Concussion in Sport. Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23(1):1-18
3. McCrory P, et.al. Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport – the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport Held in Zurich, November 2012. Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23(2)89-117
Submitted by Bridget Burke
Calcium Score Beats Lipids for Telling CVD Risk
Radio interview featured on local NE station KFAB
Transcription of the interview which was aired on KFAB in Nebraska:
Starting today, 20-plus million uninsured Americans will start entering the heath care system. Many of them will have access to the nation's healthcare system for the first time. With the new influx of patients the big question is who will care for all of these new patients? John McGinnity [ma-GINN-NUH-TEE) is President-Elect of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants and says along with doctors and nurse practitioners they are considered one of the three primary care providers in the Affordable Health Care Act.
[PA] John McGinnity, President-Elect of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants; "are in primary care."
McGinnity says physician’s assistants will help bridge the gap between doctors and patients and are a very important component of the health care team. He also urges more people to consider a career as a physician’s assistant and there are two colleges that offer the program. They are the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha and Union College in Lincoln.
Affordable Health Care Act open enrollment starts today. There are 20-million plus Americans that will now be entering the health care system and there is a lot of worry that will put a strain on doctors. John McGinnity is President-Elect of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants and says that is where they come in. He says the need for health care providers is at an all time high and he encourages more Nebraskans to consider this career.
[PA] McGinnity; "in the P-A profession."
The two P-A programs in Nebraska are the University of Nebraska Medial Center in Omaha and Union College in Lincoln.
Who is going to care for American's newly insured patients? With Affordable Health Care's open enrollment starting today it is estimated that 20-million patients will be entering the system in the next six months. With the new influx of patients will the wait at doctor's offices be even longer? In many areas of Nebraska doctors are few and far between and will the new patient load be too much for them to handle? President-Elect of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants John McGinnity says that is where they come in.
[PA] McGinnity; "increase patient satisfaction."
McGinnity says more physician assistants will be needed and he encourages Nebraskans to check out two programs that are available in the state. They are at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha and Union College in Lincoln.
5 food to avoid with ADHD
Researchers have found that there may be a link between food dyes and hyperactivity. They continue to study this connection, but in the meantime, check ingredient lists for artificial coloring. The FDA requires FD&C Yellow No. 5, also called tartrazine, and FD&C Red No. 40, also called allura, to be listed on food packages. Other dyes may or may not be listed, but be cautious with anything colored that you put in your mouth. Think: toothpaste, vitamins, fruit and sports drinks, hard candy, fruit-flavored cereals, barbecue sauce, canned fruit, fruit snacks, gelatin powders, cake mixes.
Dyes and Preservatives
- an influential scientific study combined synthetic food dyes with the preservative sodium benzoate, it found increased hyperactivity. You might find sodium benzoate in carbonated drinks, salad dressings, and condiments. Other chemical preservatives to look for are BHA, BHT, sodium nitrate, and TBHQ. Experiment by avoiding these additives one at a time. See if behaviors improve. Although dyes and preservatives may be worth taking a look at, it should be noted that in 2011, the FDA said studies had not yet proven a connection between synthetic additives and hyperactivity.
Simple Sugars and Artificial Sweeteners
The jury is still out on sugar’s effect on hyperactivity. Even so, limiting sugar in your family’s diet makes sense. To eat fewer simple sugars, look out for any kind of sugar or syrup on food labels.
When does an apple a day not keep the doctor away? When the person eating the apple is sensitive to salicylate. This is a natural substance abundant in red apples and other healthy foods like almonds, cranberries, grapes, and tomatoes. In the 1970s, Dr. Benjamin Feingold eliminated artificial dyes and flavors and salicylates from the diets of his hyperactive patients. He claimed 30 to 50 percent of them improved.